Sleep Apnea

Sleepwalking: Causes, Signs, and How It Affects Your Sleep

September 25, 2023


5 minutes read

Sleepwalking: Causes, Symptoms, and How It Affects Your Sleep Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep di
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder that affects individuals of all ages. While it may seem like a mysterious phenomenon, understanding the causes, symptoms, and its impact on sleep is crucial for those who experience it. In this article, we delve into the world of sleepwalking to shed light on this intriguing sleep disorder.

What Is Sleepwalking?

Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder characterized by a series of complex behaviors performed while an individual is in a state of deep sleep. These behaviors can range from simple, seemingly purposeless actions to more elaborate and potentially dangerous activities. Sleepwalking is a relatively common sleep disorder that can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly observed in children.

Causes of Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder that can occur for various reasons, often involving a complex interplay of factors. Understanding the potential causes of sleepwalking can help individuals and healthcare providers better manage and address this sleep disorder. Here are some key factors that can contribute to sleepwalking:
  • Genetic Predisposition: There appears to be a genetic component to sleepwalking. If one or both parents have a history of sleepwalking, their children may be more likely to experience it as well. Family history can play a significant role in determining an individual's susceptibility to sleepwalking.
  • Age: Sleepwalking is more common in children than in adults. Many children experience sleepwalking at some point during their childhood, and it often occurs between the ages of 4 and 8. Most children outgrow sleepwalking as they enter adolescence.
  • Sleep Deprivation: Insufficient or poor-quality sleep can trigger sleepwalking episodes. This includes not getting enough sleep at night and experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Stress and Anxiety: Emotional stress, anxiety, and psychological factors can contribute to sleepwalking in some individuals. Stressful life events or ongoing anxiety may increase the likelihood of sleepwalking episodes.
  • Medications: Certain medications, particularly sedative-hypnotic drugs used to treat anxiety or sleep disorders, can increase the risk of sleepwalking. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider if sleepwalking occurs while taking medication.
  • Medical Conditions: Underlying medical conditions may be associated with sleepwalking. These include conditions such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and psychiatric disorders.

Signs of Sleepwalking

Signs of Sleepwalking


Sleepwalking, clinically known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder characterized by a person engaging in complex behaviors while still in a state of partial arousal from sleep. These behaviors can vary in intensity and duration but typically occur during non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep stages, especially during the first half of the night. The symptoms of sleepwalking can range from mild to severe and may include the following:
  • Walking or Moving: The most obvious symptom is the act of walking or moving around while asleep. Sleepwalkers may sit up in bed, stand, or even walk around the room or house.
  • Blank Stare: Sleepwalkers often have a blank, glassy-eyed expression and may not respond to attempts at communication. They may appear confused or disoriented.
  • Incoherent Speech: Some sleepwalkers may mumble or speak incoherently while sleepwalking. Their speech is usually not connected to any meaningful conversation.
  • Limited Awareness: Sleepwalkers have a limited or absent awareness of their surroundings. They may not recognize familiar people, objects, or locations.
  • Inappropriate Behaviors: Sleepwalkers can engage in inappropriate or unusual behaviors while sleepwalking. This may include attempting to perform everyday tasks, such as getting dressed, eating, or even driving a car.
  • Difficulty Awakening: Sleepwalkers are often difficult to wake up during an episode. If awakened, they may be confused, agitated, or have no memory of the episode.

How Sleepwalking Affects Sleep

Sleepwalking, or somnambulism, is a sleep disorder that can have significant impacts on an individual's sleep patterns and overall sleep quality. It occurs during non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep stages, typically during the first half of the night. Here's how sleepwalking can affect sleep:
  • Disruption of Sleep Cycles: Sleepwalking can disrupt the normal progression of sleep cycles, including the transition from light sleep to deep sleep. This disruption can lead to fragmented sleep, making it challenging to achieve restorative rest.
  • Increased Arousal: Sleepwalkers experience partial arousal from sleep, which means their brain is not fully asleep nor fully awake during episodes. This increased arousal can prevent the individual from reaching the deeper stages of sleep, including slow-wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, where most restorative processes occur.
  • Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Due to interrupted sleep, sleepwalkers often experience excessive daytime sleepiness. This can impact their ability to stay awake and alert during daytime activities, leading to reduced productivity and an increased risk of accidents.
  • Emotional Disturbances: Sleep disturbances like sleepwalking can contribute to emotional disturbances such as mood swings, irritability, and increased stress levels. These emotional effects can further worsen sleep quality in a vicious cycle.
  • Sleep-Related Disorders: Sleepwalking is sometimes associated with other sleep-related disorders, such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome. These comorbid conditions can further complicate sleep patterns and exacerbate sleepwalking episodes.
The severity and frequency of sleepwalking episodes can vary from person to person. Some individuals may experience occasional, mild episodes, while others may have more frequent and complex behaviors.

Treatment and Management of Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder that can be effectively managed and treated to improve sleep quality and safety. The approach to treatment and management may vary depending on the severity and frequency of sleepwalking episodes. Here are strategies and interventions commonly used:
  • Improving Sleep Hygiene: Establishing a regular sleep schedule, maintaining a relaxing bedtime routine, and ensuring adequate sleep can reduce the occurrence of sleepwalking.
  • Stress Management: Strategies for managing stress and anxiety can be beneficial.
  • Medications: In some cases, healthcare providers may prescribe medications to help manage sleepwalking, particularly if it is associated with an underlying condition.
  • Safety Measures: Creating a safe sleep environment is crucial to prevent injuries during sleepwalking episodes. This may include securing doors and windows and removing potential hazards.
  • Consult a Specialist: If sleepwalking persists or is causing significant disruption, consultation with a sleep specialist is recommended. Specialized sleep studies may be conducted to assess sleep patterns and identify underlying issues.
Sleepwalking is a unique sleep disorder that, with proper understanding and management, can be effectively addressed. If you or someone you know experiences sleepwalking, seeking professional guidance is the first step towards a restful and safe night's sleep.
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